Our Children's Christian Rights at School
For the public schools, their administrators and teachers, Separation of Church and state and the establishment clause of the first amendment means that public school teachers and public school officials, who represent the government may not favor religion over non religion or favor one religion over another or one Christian denomination over another. That is why teachers may not conduct religious devotions and prayer or devotional Bible reading during class time during a school day and why school officials may not sponsor prayers at graduation services or post religious symbols in such a way as to endorse the religion.
Use of the Bible in public school curriculum
It is important to note, however, that public school teachers may use the Bible and other Christian literature in instructional ways-as literature, history, comparative religions, or ethics in the classroom, as determined by the supreme court in Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980). For this reason efforts to ban the Bible and religious books from the classroom and public school libraries failed. It is only formal, structured prayer and formal, structured devotional use of the Bible in public schools that are forbidden under the First Amendment as an establishment of religion.
For the public schools of America the word establishment means that teachers and school officials-who are representatives of the government-may not do anything to favor religion or to favor one religion over another. That is why teachers may not conduct religious devotions-prayer or Bible reading-at the start of the school day. That is why school officials may not sponsor prayers at graduation services or post the Ten Commandments or other religious symbols.
It is important to note, however, that public school teachers may use the Bible in instructional ways-as literature, history, comparative religions, or ethics-in the classroom. This was the holding of Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980). For this reason efforts to ban the Bible and religious books from public school libraries failed. It is only formal, structured prayer and formal, structured devotional use of the Bible in public schools that are forbidden under the First Amendment as an establishment of religion.
The First Amendment not only bars the establishment of religion by the state, it also guarantees that individual Americans have the right to the free exercise of their religion (or non-religion). "Congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise (of religion]." Public school children, being citizens of America, also have a right to the free exercise of their religion--even in the public schools.
Since 1990, United States Supreme Court decisions have brought some balance to the questions of separation of church and state by recognizing the free exercise and free speech rights of religious children in the public schools. The United States Supreme Court said in Board of Education of the Westside Community Schools v. Mergens, 496 U.S. 226 (1990), that if a state institution, such as a public school, prohibited religious speech or activities, "then it would demonstrate not neutrality but hostility toward religion. The Establishment Clause does not license government to treat religion and those who teach or practice it simply by virtue of their status as such, as subversive of American ideals and, therefore, subject to unique disabilities." Mergens at 248 (Brennan, I., concurring).
The new rule is that public schools must accommodate the religious expression of public school children. Justice Souter said in Lee v. Weisman, "Whatever else may define the scope of accommodation permissible under the Establishment Clause, one requirement is clear: accommodation must lift a discernible burden of the free exercise of religion." Lee, 112 S.Ct. at 2677 (Souter, I., concurring). S.Ct. at 2677 (Souter, J., concurring).
... Public school students have the right to express their religious beliefs in public school under the First Amendment right of free speech. "Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech." As noted in Widmar v. Vincent, 454 U.S. 263 (1981), the law is well settled that religious speech, even prayer, is protected free speech under the First Amendment.
1. May a student use a pencil or notebook with a Christian slogan or Bible verse printed on it?
Yes! Forbidding use of such items would violate the rights of free speech and religious expression of public school children.
The school may only impose reasonable regulations for maintaining order in the classroom. Using a pencil or notebook with a Christian slogan cannot in any way materially or substantially detract from classroom order. Forbidding use of such items would be a violation of the Constitutional right allowing symbolic speech.
2. May a student wear a tee-shirt or button with a religious slogan, Bible verse, or anti-abortion message printed on it?
Yes! Christian students may display religious messages on clothing to the same extent as other students are permitted to display comparable messages.
Shirts with printed messages are forms of symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment. Courts have only allowed suppression of symbolic speech in public schools if it were lewd or obscene, Broussard v. Sch. Brd. of City of Norfolk (E.D. Va. 1992), or if the clothing had slogans advertising alcoholic beverages, McIntire v. Berel Sch., 804 F. Supp. 1415 (W.D. Okia. 1992).
3. May a student give out Gospel tracts or religious literature to his classmates?
Yes! Students may distribute religious tracts or literature to their schoolmates in the same manner as they would be permitted to distribute non-religious material. Schools may impose reasonable restrictions on the place and manner for distribution of all printed material, but religious literature may not be singled out for special restrictions or regulations. If the Boy Scouts or community sports team may distribute material promoting out-of-school programs, distribution of similar religious material must also be permitted.
First Amendment rights include the right to distribute Gospel tracts or other religious literature during non-instructional times. The standard that must be applied is: Does the activity materially or substantially disrupt school discipline?
The school must prove that such disruption actually occurs. "[U]ndifferentiated fear or apprehension of disturbance is not enough to overcome the right to freedom of expression." Tinker at 508. When a student peacefully distributes tracts or other religious literature on school grounds during non-instructional time there is nothing that "might reasonably [lead] school authorities to forecast substantial disruption of or material interference with school activities." Tinker at 514.
4. May a student witness to his classmates about Jesus or pray with other students on the school campus?
Yes! School officials may not prevent students from gathering for such activities before or after school, at lunch, or during other times when students are permitted to interact with other students. Students may pray together in informal settings and may discuss their religious views with each other, subject only to the same rules of order which apply to all other student conduct and speech. Students may attempt to persuade their peers about religious and political topics, including religion and abortion, so long as such speech does not constitute harassment aimed at a particular student or group of students.
Any restrictions imposed upon student interaction must be reasonable restrictions relating to the time, place, and manner of all student behaviors, not just religious behavior. During any time in which a student is free to discuss non-instructional topics, he is free to discuss religious topics, and such freedom of speech includes the freedom to witness or to pray.
5. May a student say grace before eating his lunch?
Yes! Freedom of speech includes the freedom to pray. Students may bow their heads to pray before tests.
6. May a student read the Bible during the school day?
Yes! Any time that students are allowed to read non-instructional books, Bible reading must be permitted. This would include the hours before and after school or during lunch. It would also include study halls or any free reading hours during class time when teachers permit students to read books of their choice.
7. May students organize Bible clubs in public school?
Yes! Public secondary schools must allow Bible clubs the same privileges as any other school club. Meetings may include prayer, Bible reading, and worship. Bible clubs must also be allowed to promote their activities through school newspapers, public address systems, and bulletin boards on the same basis as other clubs. The school must provide a room and resources for the Bible clubs. The only difference the Court allowed between bible clubs and other clubs is that the faculty sponsor may not control the Bible club. The faculty sponsor must merely ensure that the club follows school policies, since any official control by the faculty members of religious activities of the club could be an establishment of religion. The club must be student-led, and students may occasionally invite outside community religious leaders to speak.
8. May students write book reports or English themes or do oral assignements based on religious subjects?
Yes! Students may express their religious beliefs in homework, artwork, or any other written or oral assignment. Such home and classroom work must be judged by teachers using ordinary academic standards, and religious topics may not be discriminated against or singled out for special restrictions. This would include the right to present a religious topic in a show-and-tell exercise as well as in a book report or speech assignment to be delivered to the class. It would not be unconstitutional for a teacher to allow students to share their personal religious viewpoints in the classroom at appropriate times or in appropriate assignments. The teacher may constitutionally permit religious students to share their views if the views of all other students are also allowed.
9. May Christian students be excused from participation in activities they find objectionable?
Yes! If a particular lesson or activity would substantially burden a student's free exercise of religion, and if the school cannot prove a compelling interest in requiring attendance, the school is legally required to excuse the student from that lesson or activity.
10. May student graduation speakers mention their Christian faith and/or read from the Bible?
Yes! If students such as valedictorians or salutatorians are allowed to compose their own speeches, the speeches may only be censored for lewd or obscene speech. A governmental body, such as a school, may not censor the speech of private individuals merely because that speech contains a religious perspective.
Courts have upheld the right of a majority of students to act on their own to incorporate prayer into the graduation exercises if it is student-led and the content is not controlled by school officials. Jones v. Clear Creek Ind. Sc. Dist., 977 F.2d 963 (5th Cir. 1992) (]ones II).
11. May baccalaureate services still be held?
Yes! Baccalaureate services may still be held if they are sponsored by a private group rather than by the school. These private baccalaureate services may be held in school facilities if those facilities are generally open to use by other private groups.
12. May public schools teach about religion?
Yes! While public schools may not directly provide religious instruction on the school campus, school officials have substantial discretion to dismiss students to participate in off-premises religious instruction provided that they do not encourage or discourage participation and do not penalize students who choose not to participate. Additionally, public schools may teach about religion, including material about the Bible and other religious material, the history of religion, comparative religion, Biblical literature, and the role of religion in American history and in the history of other countries.
While schools must express neutrality toward particular religions, teachers may also actively teach civil values and virtue, as well as the moral codes which hold communities together, even if these values are also those held by particular religious groups. Public schools may also teach about religious holidays, including their religious aspects. Schools may not, however, observe religious holidays except with respect to secular aspects of those holidays.
Schools can hand out Bibles (have them in office etc for children to take home if they wish)
Cortman points to the First Amendment's Free Speech Clause as a legal precedent protecting such distribution, as well as the court case Good News Club v. Milford Central School, 533 U.S. 98, 110 (2001).
"So long as the district permits outside groups to distribute religious and nonreligious materials on a neutral basis, it does not violate the Establishment Clause to permit the distribution of Bibles as well," Cortman said.
ADF strongly encourages public schools to continue their long-standing tradition of allowing God's Word to be made readily available from outside sources.
ADF letter: Constitution does not forbid leaving Bibles at Cumberland County schools
Our Christian Rights At Public Schools (excerpts)
(compiled from court rulings, law, and government directives)
1. The following issues have all been established as legal rights by the courts and government.
- The phrases "God Bless America" and "In God We Trust" (Our National motto) are legal and protected right of free speech (by the courts).
- In the Pledge of Allegiance, "under God", is legal free speech (by the courts).
- A "Moment of Silence" (and now in many states also "or prayer" - check with your state) is legal ( this is conditional, that is, it is permitted when done in accordance with the guidelines approved by prior court decisions. (Cf. Brown v. Gilmore, 533 U.S. 1301 (2001) (Rehnquist, C.J., denying application for injunction against Virginia moment of silence statute).
- Elective Bible courses are legal (approved Bible curriculum has been developed and is being taught already in many school districts in 33 states) - we cannot however evangelize or have teacher led prayer; reference Supreme Court cases "Stone vs. Graham", "Edwards vs. Aguillard", "Zorach vs. Clausen", Federal District Court case "Wiley vs. Franklin." The National Council on Bible Curriculum in Public Schools is the oldest and largest organization offering a curriculum meeting constitutional guidelines. Their website is www.bibleinschools.org
- Teaching of U.S. history and the facts of our Christian Heritage is legal and should be taught whenever possible. We were founded a Christian nation and a great many of our founding documents reflect that fact -to deny it or not teach it would be a gross error as to our heritage and history. We cannot however, evangelize; that is attempt to convince someone to turn their life over to Christ in the classroom.
- Bible clubs and Christian clubs are legal and upheld by the courts at schools as long as there are other secular clubs. If the secular clubs can meet after school instruction hours then Christian based clubs have the same rights.
3. Student led and initiated prayer is legal at football games if done impromptu, not over P.A. system, and not led or assigned by faculty or administrators.
4. A Bible or Christian group can advertise and make announcements at school if other groups and clubs are allowed.
5. High school Christians can wear Christian messages on their clothes, share their faith at non-instructional times, pass out tracts; junior high students have the right to pray and have religious discussions on their campus, distribute literature with some restrictions, can wear religious t-shirts to school, form religious clubs to the extent that students may express themselves through the same means on other topics and in forming clubs and organizations. In other words, the school may impose reasonable restrictions on when, where and so on, provided it is done equally to all, and Christians are not singled out for adverse treatment. The same is true of Christians passing out holiday and religious cards and wearing symbols and the like.
6. Valedictorians, salutatorians, honorary student speakers can give speeches on religious subjects, including reading from the Bible; baccalaureate services are permitted and if the school facilities are available to other groups then they most be made available for baccalaureate services.
7. Students are free to observe religious holidays and express their beliefs and convictions as they apply to a particular holiday; they have the right to distribute Christmas cards or religious tracts on the "true meaning of Christmas" during non-instructional times.
8. Students may express their beliefs during classroom discussions, as well as in the context of appropriate classroom assignments; they may draw a picture, write a poem, prepare an essay on any topic of choice ( the birth of Christ etc.) or any religious subject the student wishes. School officials cannot discriminate against a student's work simply because of its religious nature.
9. Students may opt out of a class for objectionable religious reasons. The Hatch Amendment passed in 1984 allowed parents the right to opt out their children if the school made use of experimental or values-related classes that depart from academics. The Hatch Amendment stated that the parents have the right to examine and inspect all instructional material, including that used in experimental or testing programs. Unless parental consent is given, no student shall be required to submit to any kind of test designed to reveal information of a non-academic nature. Know what your child is being exposed to in school! (This does vary as to magnitude and dimension of opt-out and on what issues from state to state- check on your state laws also). Click here to obtain a letter to your School Principal enforcing YOUR childs rights as a student based on Hatch Amendment - this is extremely important.
10. "Music, art, literature and drama having religious themes or basis are permitted as part of curriculum for school-sponsored activities and programs if presented in a prudent and objective manner and as a traditional part of cultural and religious heritage of the particular holiday"; reference The Supreme Court in the case Florey vs. Sioux Falls School District 1980.
11. The Supreme Court has indicated many times that teaching about religion, as distinguished from religious indoctrination, is an important part of a complete education.
One day I was looking through my bible library and came across some great quotes about our children and education here in the US. Let me share some with you...(I'm only posting portions of the quotes; and only a few of the many there are)
Connecticut, Colony of (1690), in the legislature, passed the law:
This [legislature] observing that … there are many persons unable to read the English tongue and thereby incapable to read the holy Word of God or the good laws of this colony … it is ordered that all parents and masters shall cause their respective children and servants, as they are capable, to be taught to read distinctly the English tongue.
New England Primer (1691), was in its second edition, as recorded in an advertisement by Benjamin Harris of Boston. The oldest extant copy is dated 1737. It was used to teach colonial era children the alphabet, by the use of illustrations and rhyme:
A In ADAM’S Fall
We sinned all.
B Heaven to find,
The Bible Mind.
C Christ crucify’d
For sinners dy’d.
D The Deluge drown’d
The Earth around.
E ELIJAH hid
By Ravens fed.
F The judgement made
G As runs the Glass,
Our Life doth pass.
H My Book and Heart
Must never part
J JOB feels the Rod,
Yet blesses GOD.
K Proud Korah’s troop
Was swallowed up.
L LOT fled to Zoar
Saw fiery Shower
On Sodom pour.
M MOSES was he
Who Israel’s Host
Led thro’ the Sea.
N NOAH did view
The old world & new.
O Young OBADIAS,
All were pious.
P PETER deny’d
His Lord and cry’d.
Q Queen ESTHER sues
And saves the Jews.
R Young pious RUTH,
Left all for Truth.
S Young SAM’L dear
The Lord did fear.
T Young TIMOTHY
Learnt sin to flee.
V VASHTI for Pride,
Was set aside.
W Whales in the Sea.
GOD’s Voice obey.
X XERXES did die
And so must I.
Y While youth do chear
Death may be near.
Z ZACCHEUS he
Did climb the Tree
Our Lord to see.
The New England Primer contained this cherished prayer, which was originally recorded in the Enchiridion Leonis, dated 1160 A.D.:
Now I lay me down to sleep,
I pray the Lord my soul to keep;
If I should die before I wake,
I pray the Lord my soul to take.
Criss-Cross (1475), originated from the Middle English 8 and earlier, 1390, from 8 was the mark + or X written before the alphabet. (The Greek symbol ×, abbreviation of Christos, is of the same origin as ×8 for “Christmas.”) Learning the “Criss-Cross Row,” therefore, was the expression used for learning the alphabet. The mark stood for the phrase 8 (“May Christ’s Cross give me success”), an invocation said before reciting the alphabet.69 The Criss-Cross or Christ’s-Cross (X) was also a form of written oath before God used when signing one’s name on a document; and in the event a person could not write, was used in place of their signature.
Hornbook (1442–1800), was the schoolbook used to teach children to read in early English, and later American, schools. Invented in response to the expense and scarcity of paper, the hornbook consisted of one sheet of vellum or paper pasted to a flat board with a handle, shaped like a table-tennis paddle, and covered over with a thin piece of transparent cow’s horn, giving the appearance of lamination. On the paper was printed the Criss-Cross Row (Christ’s-Cross followed by the alphabet), the Benediction, the Lord’s Prayer, and the Roman numerals. The hornbook ceased being used in the early 1800’s, when paper became less expensive and more easily available. The Benediction written on the Hornbook was:
In the Name of the Father and of the Sonne and of the Holy Ghost, Amen.
Harvard University (1636), founded by the General Court of Massachusetts only sixteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims, is the oldest university in the United States. Originally called the College at Cambridge, being established in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it was renamed after its first major benefactor, Rev. John Harvard (1607–1638), who donated his library and half of his estate. The declared purpose of the college was:
To train a literate clergy.
The Rules and Precepts observed at Harvard, September 26, 1642, stated:
1. When any Scholar … is able to make and speak true Latine in Verse and Prose.… And decline perfectly the paradigims of Nounes and Verbes in the Greek tongue … [he is able] of admission into the college.
2. Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternall life, John 17:3 and therefore to lay Christ in the bottome, as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and Learning. And seeing the Lord only giveth wisedome, Let every one seriously set himself by prayer in secret to seeke it of him Prov. 2, 3.
3. Every one shall so exercise himselfe in reading the Scriptures twice a day, that he shall be ready to give such an account of his proficiency therein, both in Theoreticall observations of Language and Logick, and in practicall and spirituall truths, as his Tutor shall require, according to his ability; seeing the entrance of the word giveth light, it giveth understanding to the simple, Psalm, 119:130.
4. That they eshewing all profanation of Gods name, Attributes, Word, Ordinances, and times of Worship, do studie with good conscience carefully to retaine God, and the love of his truth in their mindes, else let them know, that (notwithstanding their Learning) God may give them up to strong delusions, and in the end to a reprobate minde, 2Thes. 2:11, 12. Rom. 1:28.
5. That they studiously redeeme the time; observe the generall houres … diligently attend the Lectures, without any disturbance by word or gesture.…
6. None shall … frequent the company and society of such men as lead an unfit, and dissolute life. Nor shall any without his Tutors leave, or without the call of Parents or Guardians, goe abroad to other Townes.
7. Every Scholar shall be present in his Tutors chamber at the 7th houre in the morning, immediately after the sound of the Bell, at his opening the Scripture and prayer, so also at the 5th houre at night, and then give account of his owne private reading.… But if any … shall absent himself from prayer or Lectures, he shall bee lyable to Admonition, if he offend above once a weeke.
8. If any Scholar shall be found to transgresse any of the Lawes of God, or the Schoole … he may bee admonished at the publick monethly Act.
Ten of the twelve presidents of Harvard, prior to the Revolutionary War, were ministers, and according to reliable calculations, over fifty percent of the seventeenth-century Harvard graduates became ministers. Of note is the fact that 106 of the first 108 schools in America were founded on the Christian faith.
Harvard college was founded in “Christi Gloriam” and later dedicated “Christo et Ecclesiae”. The founders of Harvard believed that:
All knowledge without Christ was vain.
The word Veritas, on the college seal, means divine truth. The motto of Harvard was officially:
For Christ and the Church.
The dedication inscribed on the wall by the old iron gate at the main entrance to the Harvard University campus, as well as in the catalog of the Harvard Divinity School, reads:
After God had carried us safe to New England and we had builded our houses, provided necessaries for our livelihood, reared convenient places for God’s worship and settled the civil government, one of the next things we longed for and looked after was to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers lie in the dust.
On Election Day, May 31, 1775, Harvard President Samuel Langdon addressed the Massachusetts Provincial Congress. The message had a profound impact, resulting in it being published and distributed throughout the colonies:
We have rebelled against God. We have lost the true spirit of Christianity, though we retain the outward profession and form of it. We have neglected and set light by the glorious Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ and His holy commands and institutions.
The worship of many is but mere compliment to the Deity, while their hearts are far from Him. By many, the Gospel is corrupted into a superficial system of moral philosophy, little better than ancient Platonism.…
My brethren, let us repent and implore the divine mercy. Let us amend our ways and our doings, reform everything that has been provoking the Most High, and thus endeavor to obtain the gracious interpositions of providence for our deliverance.…
May the Lord hear us in this day of trouble.… We will rejoice in His salvation, and in the name of our God, we will set up our banners!…
Wherefore is all this evil upon us? Is it not because we have forsaken the Lord? Can we say we are innocent of crimes against God? No, surely it becomes us to humble ourselves under His mighty hand, that He may exalt us in due time.…
My brethren, let us repent and implore the divine mercy. Let us amend our ways and our doings, reform everything that has been provoking the Most High, and thus endeavor to obtain the gracious interpositions of Providence for our deliverance.…
If God be for us, who can be against us? The enemy has reproached us for calling on His name and professing our trust in Him. They have made a mock of our solemn fasts and every appearance of serious Christianity in the land.…
May our land be purged from all its sins! Then the Lord will be our refuge and our strength, a very present help in trouble, and we will have no reason to be afraid, though thousands of enemies set themselves against us round about.
May the Lord hear us in this day of trouble.… We will rejoice in His salvation, and in the name of our God, we will set up our banners.
In 1790, the requirements for Harvard stated:
All persons of what degree forever residing at the College, and all undergraduates … shall constantly and seasonably attend the worship of God in the chapel, morning and evening … All the scholars shall, at sunset in the evening preceding the Lord’s Day, lay aside all their diversions and.… it is enjoined upon every scholar carefully at apply himself to the duties of religion on said day.
Luther, Martin (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546),
I am much afraid that schools will prove to be the great gates of hell unless they diligently labor in explaining the Holy Scriptures, engraving them in the hearts of youth.
I advise no one to place his child where the scriptures do not reign paramount. Every institution in which men are not increasingly occupied with the Word of God must become corrupt.
The Bible was written for men with a head upon their shoulders.
Massachusetts Bay, Colony of (1642), along with the Colony of Connecticut in 1647, passed the Old Deluder Satan Law to prevent illiteracy and to prevent the abuse of power over a population ignorant of Scriptures, as had been the case in Europe. The law instituted:
It being one chiefe project of that old deluder, Sathan, to keepe men from the knowledge of the Scriptures, as in former time, and that learning may not be buried in the grave of our forefathers in church and Commonwealth.…
It is therefore ordered by this Court … that every township within this jurisdiction, after the Lord hath increased them to the number of fifty howshoulders, shall forthwith appoint one within theire towne, to teach all such children as shall resorte to him, to write and read.…
and it is further ordered, That where any towne shall increase to the number of one hundred families or howshoulders, they shall sett up a grammar schoole for the university.
New Guide to the English Tongue (1740), was published first in England by Thomas Dilworth, a distinguished educator and textbook writer. The book’s popularity grew in the Colonies, until, by 1765, it was universally adopted in the New England schools. The book contained spelling, reading and grammar lessons, “adorned with proper Scriptures.” Its first lesson, having words only three letters long or less, stated:
No Man may put off the Law of God.
The Way of God is no ill Way.
My Joy is in God all the Day.
A bad Man is a Foe to God.
Noah Webster, known as the “Schoolmaster to America,” used only the Bible and the New Guide to the English Tongue, 1740, in his earliest school. Thomas Dilworth said he wanted to rescue:
Poor creatures from the Slavery of Sin and Satan by setting the word of God for a Lantern to our feet and a Light to our Paths.
Pennsylvania, Frame of Government of (April 25, 1682), composed by William Penn, stated in the preface:
[Be it enacted] that all persons … having children … shall cause such to be instructed in reading and writing, so that they may be able to read the Scriptures and to write by the time they attain to 12 years of age
Yale College (1701),
The founders of Yale College stated:
Every student shall consider the main end of his study to wit to know God in Jesus Christ and answerably to lead a Godly, sober life.
In 1720, the students of Yale College were instructed:
Seeing God is the giver of all wisdom, every scholar, besides private or secret prayer, where all we are bound to ask wisdom, shall be present morning and evening at public prayer in the hall at the accustomed hour.
In 1755, students of Yale College were instructed:
Above all have an eye to the great end of all your studies, which is to obtain the clearest conceptions of Divine things and to lead you to a saving knowledge of God in his Son Jesus Christ.
In 1787, the requirements of Yale College stated:
All scholars are required to live a religious and blameless life according to the rules of God’s Word, diligently reading the Holy Scriptures, that fountain of truth, and constantly attending all the duties of religion, both in public and secret.…
All the scholars are obliged to attend Divine worship in the College Chapel on the Lord’s Day and on Days of Fasting and Thanksgiving appointed by public Authority.
Benjamin Silliman, a noted American science educator and editor, served on the faculty of Yale College during the tenure of President Timothy Dwight, 1795–1817. He recorded his observations of the campus: "It would delight your heart to see how the trophies of the cross are multiplied in this institution. Yale College is a little temple: prayer and praise seem to be the delight of the greater part of the students."
Federer, W. J. (2001). Great Quotations : A Collection of Passages, Phrases, and Quotations Influencing Early and Modern World History Referenced according to their Sources in Literature, Memoirs, Letters, Governmental Documents, Speeches, Charters, Court Decisions and Constitutions. St. Louis, MO: AmeriSearch.